The Beat Syndicate, circa 1965

The Beat Syndicate

The Beat Syndicate, circa 1965
The Beat Syndicate, circa 1965, from left: Tony (the drummer), Jim Newton, John Maskell, John (the bassist) and Mick George
John Maskell wrote to me about his group the Beat Syndicate and sent in the great promotional photo seen here. Has anyone come across their unreleased demo?

I was a vocalist for a group called The Beat Syndicate.

Attached is a photo of the group circa 1965. From the left, Tony the drummer, Jim Newton the rhythm guitarist, John Maskell, John the bassist and Mick George the lead guitarist. I am afraid I cannot recall two of the surnames of two that are mentioned.

In September 1965 (25th I think) we appeared at the Cellar Club supporting The Nashville Teens. Arriving about 7 pm we started the show at 7.30 pm. We played on and then had a 15 minute break, when we were informed the Teens had been fog bound in Manchester where they were recording Top of the Pop’s. We were asked to play on to keep the show going as they were not sure what time the star act was going to arrive. Two guys who had left Screaming Lord Sutch’s group to form The Plebs, Danny McCulloch and Derek Sirmon gave our drummer and bassist a break. We eventually finished at just after midnight and the Teens went on at 12.30 am. I am not quite sure about the actual date, from my old notes it has to be a few days either side of the 25th, if it’s not the 25th.  

We won a beat competition at Coronation Gardens Leytonstone, where we were based, and were given a recording test at Pye studios. Alan A. Freeman was the producer. We recorded a song that the lead guitarist and I wrote with a standard on the B side. The record was never released and I lent my copy to an agent who said he would get me some work after I left the Beat Syndicate but I never saw him or my disc again.

I left The Beat Syndicate rather acrimoniously, as at the time of the Pye test we were given a contract to tour professionally, however the rest of the band turned the opportunity down. I was a bit miffed as I thought that was what we were in the music business for, to progress to professionals. The band carried on for a couple of years and disbanded some time in 1968.

Disillusioned, I didn’t pursue my singing career any further, but I have sung with the odd band or two in recent years.   

Previously in 1963, I had been with a group called Johnny & the Bobcats, we changed the name to Group 004 + 1 after a while. We had success supporting groups such as Georgie Fame, The Kinks, The Paramounts and Gene Vincent & the Shouts to name a few.

John Maskell

The Kaleidoscope Machine Dab 45 Why

The Kaleidoscope Machine

The Kaleidoscope Machine Dab 45 WhyWhen this 45 by the Kaleidoscope Machine came up for auction this summer, I threw a bid out for about a third of its reputed value. To my surprise, and subsequent financial distress, I won it. The band had only 200 copies pressed in October, 1967, distributing them to local radio stations. Those copies are mostly lost and this is considered a very rare single now.

According to Buckeye Beat, Dennis Anthony was a student at Toledo University and wrote original songs. He formed a band with his wife’s younger brother and a couple other high school students from the small town of Petersburg, MI, about 30 miles from Toledo. The Kaleidoscope Machine did some shows in Petersburg and Toledo. The band stayed together only a short time, but it was enough to record two of Dennis Anthony’s songs at a radio studio.

The band rocks behind Dennis on “Why”, while “We Can’t Wait” is more subdued. The lyrics to both songs are simple and impassioned, but the performances have a confidence that elevates them above many other singles in this vein. The rarity of this 45 has kept these songs from being compiled and few people have heard either.

Anthony wrote both songs for Barthmare Music, BMI, though I can’t find any trace of them in BMI’s online database. The label is DAB Records, which I assume was short for Dennis Anthony B——? Master #s are 20577/8.
The Kaleidoscope Machine Dab 45 We Can't Wait

Cross Tie Walkers Valley 45 Days I Recollect

Cross Tie Walkers

Cross Tie Walkers Valley 45 Days I RecollectCan’t find much about this group who did this one 45 in 1970. The Cross Tie Walkers included brothers Tony Goggans and Mike Goggans. I’ve read Valley was an Alabama label, and thought the band was from there until Vance Pollack wrote that the brothers had previously been in “the Malabous Ron, aka Malibus / Malibous, etc. of Fayetteville” in North Carolina.

Cross Tie Walkers Valley 45 Girl We Got a While Yet“Days I Recollect is the standout, sounding much like Creedence, but with something original to it. Mike Goggans wrote both that and the flip, “Girl We Got a While Yet”, for Clay Music BMI.

Tony Goggans produced the 45, engineered by Jerry K. Black and arranged by Michael Goggans. The PRP 21841/PRP 21842 code indicates Precision Record Press in Nashville.

Any additional information about the group would be appreciated. Anyone have a photo of the group?

WGXC Record Fair, October 11, 2014, Hudson, NY

1st Annual WGXC Record Fair

WGXC Record Fair, October 11, 2014, Hudson, NYThe 1st Annual WGXC Record & Media Fair is this Saturday, October 11, from 10 a.m. – 4 p.m. Admission is $3, early admission at 8 a.m. is $10.

I’ll be selling LPs and garage 45s up front as you walk in so please come by and say hello. Lots of collectors & smaller dealers will be selling which should make this fun.


Second Ward Foundation
71 North 3rd Street
Hudson, NY 12534

Hudson is about 1/2 hour from Albany, 2.5 hours from New York City (less if traffic is good), and 2.5 hours from Boston.

Vendors include:
Sundazed Records – Coxsackie, NY
Spike Priggen of Bedazzled / 4 Star Vinyl
Slipped Disc Records/Mike Schutzman, NYC
Mark Zip/Zip’s Ziggurat – Saugerties, NY
VInyl Rescue/Michael Overn – Pomona, NY
Jack Skutnick/NY CD & Record Fairs – Binghamton, NY
Ric Zannitto
Chris Bishop, Ghent, NY
John Cleater, Columbiaville, NY
Thomas Konopka
Alex Benson

Free parking in back of the venue and on the street. We should have at least two food trucks and plenty of other restaurants are within a few blocks. Hudson has three record stores plus antique shops that sell records, notably Carousel, plus a few live music venues.

This is a fundraiser for WGXC 90.7 FM Hands-on Community Radio.

Audiodisc Acetate Little By Little

Unknown Audiodisc Acetate

Audiodisc Acetate Have Faith
“Have Faith”

Audiodisc Acetate Little By Little
“Little By Little, Fallin’ Apart”
Here’s an Audiodisc acetate (actually an aluminum disc coated with lacquer, not made of acetate) from an unknown group who may have been from the New York area. There’s no info on the disc at all, so I don’t think this group will ever be found. No one I know has ever heard these songs on any released 45, so this seems to be a one-of-a-kind demo that was never issued.

From the lyrics, the titles seem to be “Little By Little (Fallin’ Apart)” and “Have Faith”. Both songs are great mid-60s garage, I only wish the condition of “Have Faith” was a little better as it’s a quiet song so the wear is audible.

Thank you to Barry T. for the demo and transfers.

Karl Thaler 45 The Storm

Karl Thaler

Karl Thaler 45 The StormKarl Thaler 45 Phoebe

Supreme obscurity here, though not garage at all. Karl Thaler plays acoustic guitar and sings on the excellent composition “The Storm”, and plays guitar and harmonica on the instrumental “Phoebe”.

I have no info other than what’s on the label, which includes the deadwax stamp “45 202 385″ / “45 202 386″. I’m sorry I don’t have a sound clip for you to listen to, my current set up mars every rip I make so I won’t do it right now. Any info on who he is or what music scene this came from would be appreciated.

Sleepers Marvy 45 I Want a Love

The Sleepers

The Sleepers photo

Sleepers Marvy 45 I Want a LoveThe Sleepers were from Mansfield, Ohio, located in the northern part of the state about halfway between Columbus and Cleveland.

Tom Zinser lead the band so they were usually referred to as Tommy Z and the Sleepers, though not on the record label which simply says The Sleepers and lists the members by last name, including Murry, Crause, Davis, and First. Tommy Zinser’s name is spelled Zinzer on the labels.

“I Want a Love” combines a fuzz riff with a jangly guitar sound and unison vocals. There’s a short drum break and the fuzz repeats its riffs without trying for anything ambitious. “Time Will Tell” features hypnotic picked guitar and fine harmonies in backup and on the chorus.

Zinser and Davis wrote both songs. The single was recorded at Audio Recording in Cleveland, produced by E.R. Thomas and E.R. Garnes, and released on the Marvy label in 1966.

Sleepers Marvy 45 Time Will Tell
After the Sleepers broke up in 1967, Zinser went into the Wildlife with guitarist and vocalist Terry Van Auker. The Wildlife released one 45 on Columbia, 4-44369, “Time Will Tell” / “Hard, Hard ,Year”, which I haven’t heard.

Confusingly there was another group with two earlier 45s on Columbia who are listed as the Wild Life (two words instead of Wildlife) which have similar credits, arranged by Chuck Sagle and produced by John Walsh:

“This Is What I Was Made For” / “Somes Times I’m Up (Sometimes I’m Down”) (Columbia 4-44213)
“New Games to Play” / “Where Do You Go” (Columbia 4-44285)

Same band?

In any case, Zinser and Van Auker went into Owen-B which had a self-produced LP recorded at Mus-i-col Studios in Columbus. Another member of Owen-B was Jim Krause, vocals and harmonica. I suppose he could be the same person listed as ‘Crause’ on the Sleepers label.

Sugar Beats Knight 45 What Am I Doing Here

The Sugar Beats

Sugar Beats Knight 45 What Am I Doing HereThe Sugar Beats formed in Tampa, Florida and had the first release on the Knight label, which is much better known for 45s by the Outsiders, the Tropics and the Mods. The band members were:

Roland Kent LaVoie – guitar
Bill Ellington – guitar
Bill Denman – bass
Rick Emmert – drums

Both sides are upbeat pop cover songs, which may be why it was not included in Teen Beat Mayhem. Produced by Phil Gernhard and recorded at H & H Studios, though I’ve also read this was recorded at Charles Fuller’s studio – some overlap there? It dates from approximately 1964, with SoN #s 22541/2 in the matrix.

Roland LaVoie went into Me & the Other Guys who had two 45s, “Skinny Minnie” / “Crazy” on Hit Cat and “Runaround Girl” / “Everybody Knew But Me” on Boss.

Sugar Beats Knight 45 Have You Ever Had the Blues

Citations Pre-Sav Enterprises 45 The Day That She'll Go

The Citations

Citations Pre-Sav Enterprises 45 The Day That She'll Go

There were several groups called the Citations recording in the ’60s including groups from Alabama, Maine, Ohio and, most famously, the group from Milwaukee who cut “Moon Race” / “Slippin’ and Slidin'”.

The Citations I’m featuring today may have been from Lowell, Massachusetts. Though obscure, their release on Pre-Sav Enterprises is an excellent double-sider.

“Long Time Wanderin'” was the A-side, a good upbeat cut, but most garage fans prefer the flip, “The Day That She’ll Go”, for its moody New England sound.

I have no info on the group except the vocalist on both sides is Gino DiMaio. This was released in July of 1966.

If anyone has more info on the band or a photo of the group please contact me.
Citations Pre-Sav Enterprises 45 Long Time Wanderin'

Geno Washington & the Ram Jam Band 1968

Geno Washington & The Ram Jam Band 1968-1970

Geno Washington & the Ram Jam Band 1968
Ram Jam Band, late 1968.
Top, left to right: Buddy Beadle, Hans Herbert, Geno Washington, Keith O’Connell and Rod Baby
Bottom, left to right: Steve Gregory, Pete Carney and John Culley. Photo courtesy of Buddy Beadle.

Geno Washington & The Ram Jam Band
(July 1968-August 1968)

Geno Washington – lead vocals
Dave Greenslade – organ
Dave Tedstone – lead guitar, vocals
Peter Carney – bass, vocals
Lionel ‘Rocky’ Kingham – tenor saxophone
Buddy Beadle – baritone saxophone
Pat Higgs – trumpet
Colin Davey – drums

In May 1968 Geno Washington went to Madrid on his own and played at the Stones Club with Carl Douglas & The Big Stampede. Back in the UK, during mid-July, he fired guitarist John Culley and drummer Hans Herbert and put together a new formation around the surviving members.

Guitarist Dave Tedstone had a long pedigree, having worked with Herefordshire bands, Lee Starr & The Astrals and The Doc Thomas Group before joining Freddy Mack in London in April 1967. By early 1968, he was playing with Jimmy James & The Vagabonds with original Ram Jam members John Roberts and Herb Prestidge. Colin Davey had played drums with Tedstone in Freddy Mack’s band in 1967.

Original sax player Buddy Beadle returned after working with The Amboy Dukes, who’d shared the bill with The Ram Jam Band on numerous occasions.

The new line up’s first important gig was a three-hour BBC Radio 1 session at Maida Vale. With Greenslade taking the lead as musical director, the group (with a session bass player) cut five tracks, including the old blues staple, “Rock Me Baby”, a cover of The Rolling Stones’ recent single “Jumpin’ Jack Flash” plus “Hi Heel Sneakers” and “Holdin’ On (With Both Hands)”, which were later picked up by collectors’ label Acid Jazz for a compilation EP.

Producer John Schroeder, however, was not happy with the new direction and with a live album lined up for August the new line up proved to be short-lived. Gigs were few and far between and while all of this was going on, Dave Greenslade began rehearsing with his new band, Colosseum.

Selected gigs:
3 August 1968 – Market Hall, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire

Geno Washington & The Ram Jam Band
(August 1968-September 1968)

Geno Washington – lead vocals
John ‘Silkie’ Culley – lead guitar
Dave Greenslade – organ
Peter Carney – bass, vocals
Lionel ‘Rocky’ Kingham – tenor saxophone
Buddy Beadle – baritone saxophone
Hans Herbert – drums

In the first week of August, Dave Tedstone left to re-join Jimmy James & The Vagabonds. He later contributed recording sessions for Cartoone’s second album and then joined Tom Jones’s band, The Squires. In 1970, Tedstone joined Herbie Goins & The Night-Timers, reuniting with Buddy Beadle. The group cut an unreleased album at Trident Studios. Colin Davey and Pat Higgs also departed at this point.

Geno Washington revamped the band just in time for a new live album Live! –  Running Wild (Pye NPL/NSPL 18219) recorded at the Casino Ballroom, Bolton, Lancashire on 9 August 1968, bringing back John Culley and Hans Herbert from the previous incarnation.

The revised line up cut a lone single, “Bring It To Me Baby” c/w “I Can’t Let You Go” (Pye 7N 17649), which was released in November 1968.

NME reported in the week ending 17 August that Geno Washington had split from Rik Gunnell’s agency and briefly gone with Mike Rispoli.

Selected gigs:
7 August 1968 – Top Rank, Henley, Berkshire
8 August 1968 – Salisbury City Hall, Salisbury, Wiltshire with The Emotions
9 August 1968 – Casino Ballroom, Bolton, Lancashire
9 August 1968 – Casino Club, Wigan, Lancashire
10 August 1968 – Brighton Festival, Brighton, West Sussex
12 August 1968 – Portsmouth Guildhall, Portsmouth, Hants
15 August 1968 – Locarno, Bristol, Avon
16 August 1968 – Torquay Town Hall, Torquay, Devon
17 August 1968 – Winter Gardens, Weston-Super-Mare, Somerset
23-24 August 1968 – Scene Two, Scarborough, Yorkshire
30 August 1968 – Hemel Hempstead Pavilion, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire
31 August 1968 – Leas Cliffe Hall, Folkestone, Kent

1 September 1968 – Bank Holiday Bluesology Festival, Chateau Impney, Droitwich Spa, Worcestershire with The Move, Fleetwood Mac, Freddie Mack, Chris Farlowe, Wynder K Frogg, Family and John Mayall’s Bluesbreakers
1 September 1968 – Winter Gardens, Malvern, Worcestershire
1 September 1968 – Sherwood Rooms, Nottingham
2 September 1968 – Golden Torch, Tunstall, Staffordshire

Geno Washington & The Ram Jam Band
(September 1968-December 1968)

Geno Washington – lead vocals
John ‘Silkie’ Culley – lead guitar
Keith O’Connell – organ
Peter Carney – bass, vocals
Buddy Beadle – baritone saxophone
Steve Gregory – tenor saxophone
Rod Baby – trumpet
Hans Herbert – drums

In early September, Dave Greenslade formally departed to play with his new band, Colosseum. Longstanding member Lionel Kingham also departed and later did sessions for Henry McCullough and Geoff Muldaur among others.

With Greenslade gone, the band recruited Manchester musician, Keith O’Connell, who’d played with local groups The Raging Storms and Glass Menagerie.

Beadle recommended his former band mate from The Amboy Dukes, Steve Gregory, who’d played with The Alan Price Set before that. The band also added trumpet player Rod Baby.

Selected gigs:
13 September 1968 – Mayfair, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear
14 September 1968 – Imperial Ballroom, Nelson, Lancashire
29 September 1968 – Kinema Ballroom, Dunfermline, Scotland with The Shadettes (also played Maryland Ballroom, Glasgow around this time)

4 October 1968 – Top Rank, Leicester
7 October 1968 – Rhodes Centre, Bishop’s Stortford, Hertfordshire
11 October 1968 – Salford University, Salford, Greater Manchester
12 October 1968 – California Ballroom, Dunstable, Bedfordshire
15 October 1968 – Top Rank, High Wycombe, Bucks
17 October 1968 – RAF Hollyhead, Anglesey
19 October 1968 – The College, Chester, Cheshire
21 October 1968 – Top Rank, Sheffield

Mid-October 1968 – HM Wormswood Scrubs

October-November 1968 – Piper Club, Rome, Italy (also gigs in Turin)

23 November 1968 – Chelmsford Corn Exchange, Chelmsford, Essex with Apricot Brandy
25 November 1968 –Top Rank, Cardiff
28 November 1968 – Top Rank, Sunderland, Tyne & Wear

6 December 1968 – Locarno Ballroom, Sunderland, Tyne & Wear
12 December 1968 – Mayfair Ballroom, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear
20-21 December 1968 – Scene 2 Club, Scarborough
22 December 1968 – Top Rank Suite, Birmingham

Geno Washington & The Ram Jam Band
(December 1968-April 1969)

Geno Washington – lead vocals
John ‘Silkie’ Culley – lead guitar
Keith O’Connell – organ
Peter Carney – bass, vocals
Buddy Beadle – baritone saxophone
Steve Gregory – tenor saxophone
Rod Baby – trumpet
Malcolm Wolffe – drums

Hans Herbert did not stay long on his return. Malcolm Wolffe, who’d previously played with The Tribe and then Happy Magazine took his place.

Selected gigs:
17 January 1969 – Central Pier, Morecombe, Lancashire
18 January 1969 – Imperial Ballroom, Nelson, Lancashire
20 January 1969 – St Matthew’s Hall, Ipswich
25 January 1969 – Gaeity Ballroom, Ramsey, Cambridgeshire
26 January 1969 – Britannia Club, Nottingham
29 January 1969 – Oldham College of Further Education, Oldham, Lancashire
30 January 1969 – Riverton Barn, Bolton, Lancashire
31 January 1969 – Locarno Ballroom, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear with Cupid’s Inspiration

2-10 February 1969 – Showboat Variety Club, Middlesbrough
12 February 1969 – Top Rank Ballroom, Cardiff, Wales
13 February 1969 – Locarno Ballroom, Coventry, West Midlands
15 February 1969 – Winter Gardens, Weston-Super-Mare, Somerset
23 February 1969 – Kinema Ballroom, Dunfermline, Scotland with Alan Jordan & The KB Showband

5 March 1969 – Winter Gardens, Morecombe, Lancashire
7 March 1969 – College Ballroom, Hinckley, Leicestershire
8 March 1969 – Marie Hall, Shrewsbury, Shropshire
12 March 1969 – Skyline Ballroom, Hull, Humberside
14 March 1969 – Public Baths, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Nottinghamshire
15 March 1969 – Leeds University, Leeds
16 March 1969 – Pop World ’69, Empire Pool, Wembley, Middlesex with Fleetwood Mac, Amen Corner, The Move, The Gun, Barry Ryan and others

Geno Washington & The Ram Jam Band
(April 1969-September 1969)

Geno Washington – lead vocals
Keith Field – lead guitar, vocals
Keith O’Connell – organ
Peter Carney – bass, vocals
Buddy Beadle – baritone saxophone
Steve Gregory – tenor saxophone
Malcolm Wolffe – drums

John Culley departed after a Scottish tour in March-April 1969, playing his final gig in Stranraer. After working in the Ivory Coast with The Crazy Fingers, he joined Cressida in 1970 and later played with Black Widow. Rod Baby departed at the same time.

Guitarist Keith Field, formerly with The Blue Aces, and, more significantly, Ferris Wheel, took over from John Culley after cutting a solo single, “The Day That War Broke Out” c/w “Stop! Thief” for Polydor in September 1968.

The new line up recorded a lone single, “My Little Chickadee” c/w “Seven Eleven” (Pye 7N 17745), which was released in June 1969.

Selected gigs:
April 1969 – Gigs in Netherlands (according to Billboard)

5 April 1969 – Kinema Ballroom, Dunfermline, Scotland with Alan Jordan & The KB Showband and The Shadettes

23 May 1969 – Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester
24 May 1969 – The Pavilion, Buxton, Derbyshire
26 May 1969 – Skegness Seaside Soul Festival, Skegness, Lincolnshire with Amen Corner, Inez & Charlie Foxx, The Fantastics and Jimmy James & The Vagabonds
31 May 1969 – California Ballroom, Dunstable, Bedfordshire with Tract and Virgin Hearse

June 1969 – Scottish tour (includes gigs with Jo Jo Gunne and Three Dog Night)

6 July 1969 – Citation Hotel, Perth, Scotland
6 July 1969 – Grand Hall, Kilmarnock, Scotland
27 July 1969 – Start week at Fiesta, Stockton

August 1969 – Short tour of Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland (around now)

9 August 1969 – Three-day Swedish tour starts (advertised in music press)

29 November 1969 – Imperial Ballroom, Nelson, Lancashire (may not have happened)

Geno Washington & The Ram Jam Band
(March 1970-November 1970)

Geno Washington – lead vocals
Alan Griffin – lead guitar, vocals
Tom Duffy – bass, vocals
Winston ???? – keyboards
Tony Hall – tenor saxophone
Brent Scott Carter – baritone saxophone
Frank Charlton – trumpet
Larry ???? – drums

The Ram Jam Band split with Washington after working at the Neago Club in Majorca in October 1969.

Beadle and Gregory would go on to play a multitude of sessions with artists as diverse as Ginger Baker’s Airforce, Babe Ruth, Bell & Arc, Chicken Shack, Andy Fairweather-Low, Alan Hull, Otis Spann, Suzi Quatro, Freddie King and Lindisfarne. They also became members of Gonzalez and recorded a string of albums in the 1970s.

NME announced in the week ending 4 October 1969 that Geno Washington had split from The Ram Jam Band and returned to The United States. Fabulous 208 magazine mentioned in its 25 October issue that the group had split in the same week as Amen Corner and The Marbles.

The singer duly returned from the United States in early 1970 and put together an entirely new version of The Ram Jam Band around March.

Tom Duffy came from Newcastle and had previously played with The Sect. The group’s new drummer was another American, from California. Alan Griffin had previously played with Croydon, Surrey band, The Subjects.

Londoners Tony Hall and Brent Scott Carter both came in from Simon K & The Meantimers. Tony Hall had a long pedigree having previously worked with West London outfits, Peter Nelson & The Travellers, Peter’s Faces, Wainwright’s Gentlemen, The Flowerpot Men and Rupert’s Spoon.

Selected gigs:
4 April 1970 – Marquee, London

May 1970 – Gigs in Ballymena, Belfast and Dublin (according to Billboard)

13 November 1970 – Ballerina Ballroom, Nairn, Scotland

Around December 1970, Tom Duffy left and went on to record with Arc and Bell & Arc before playing and recording with Lindisfarne. Frank Charlton also left and later recorded with The Avant Gardeners.

Roger Flavell joined on bass after working with Grand Union (Bandwagon’s backing band) and Judd. Further personnel changes took place in early 1971 before the musicians broke away from Geno Washington.

Flavell subsequently played with The Tommy Hunt Band and recorded with The Byron Band among others. Brent Scott Carter later appeared on an album by Babe Ruth while Tony Hall did sessions for Dana Gillespie among others.

Selected gigs:
26 December 1970 – Marquee, London

Sources: Melody Maker, NME, Newcastle Evening Chronicle, Nottingham Evening Post, Fabulous 208.

Huge thanks to Peter Carney, John Culley, Dave Tedstone and Tony Hall for helping with line ups.

Copyright © Nick Warburton, 2014. All Rights Reserved. No part of this article may be reproduced or transmitted in any from or by any means, without prior permission from the author. To contact the author, email:

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